The Beginnings of San Francisco
The San Francisco fire of 1906 destroyed the Spanish Archives of California, consisting of perhaps three hundred thousand documents, forming the records of California under Spanish and Mexican rule. That part of the archives constituting the land titles of California was saved by reason of the expedientes being kept in a large iron safe which withstood the heat of the fire, and while badly baked and sweated the papers were found legible when the safe was opened some three months later. The other papers consisting of royal proclamations, military reports, mission reports, court proceedings, journals, diaries, correspondence, and all the multitudinous documents relating to the details of government, had been collected by the United States authorities and placed in custody of the United States surveyor-general for California. The loss is very great though not necessarily irreparable, for under the system of Spain which was followed by Mexico, a number of certified copies of each report, order, etc., were made, and these copies may be found in Mexico, in Madrid, in Seville, and in other places. They have found their way into the British museum and into various libraries of the United States. When making his history of California Mr. H. H. Bancroft put a number of men at work on these manuscripts and took from them such memoranda as he desired to use in his study. He did not make copies, save in a few instances, nor are his extracts more valuable, as he claims, for historical purposes than the originals. In 1858 Congress passed an act authorizing the collection of all papers, documents, books, etc, of every description belonging or pertaining to the former government of California, appointed the United States surveyor-general for California custodian, and made it the duty of the secretary of the interior to collect said documents wherever they might be found and place them with the custodian. Under this law Edwin M. Stanton, afterwards secretary of war, collected the manuscripts and bound the miscellaneous or historical documents in two hundred and seventy-four volumes, classified as Department Records, Department State Papers, Provincial State Papers, etc., titles having no meaning whatsoever, for the papers were jumbled together without regard to date or character. For a number of years I spent all my spare time delving into this mine of historical information and some of my most valuable and interesting records have come from it.
From this storehouse comes the story of Anza's great expedition for the founding of San Francisco. From it I have also obtained a complete census (padron) of California in the year 1790, as well as padrones of the various presidios, missions, pueblos, and ranchos from 1781 to 1845. These census lists together with the filiaciones, hojas de servicio, and mission registers have enabled me to give the origin and family record of the first settlers of California, thereby making the narrative of this history somewhat more personal and interesting than it would otherwise be.
The greatest source of historical information is the Bancroft collection, now belonging to the University of California. This has been pretty fairly described in Bancroft's history and through the courtesy of Mr. Frederick J. Teggart, the curator, I have made extensive use of it. The mission registers (Libro de Misiones) are, in most instances, in the possession of the parish priests— successors of the missionaries. I have made a complete transcript of the registers of births, marriages, and deaths, (de razon) of the mission of San Francisco from 1776 to 1850, the mission of San Francisco Solano, and those of Santa Clara and Santa Barbara, following the lines of San Francisco families.
The most interesting and valuable of the documents, not yet printed, are the diaries of the two expeditions of Juan Bautista de Anza. Anza's diary of 1774 is in the archives of Mexico; that of 1775-76, was in the archives of California—copies of both are in the Bancroft library. The diary of Pedro Font (borrador) is in the Academy of Pacific Coast History, and Font's full diary or report is in the John Carter Brown library at Providence, R. I., a certified copy of which, comprising six hundred and seventy pages (MS.) is in my possession.
For the account of the discovery and first attempt at settlement of California, we must go back to Bernal Diaz del Castillo's "Historia Verdadera de la Conquista." Diaz was born in Medino del Campo about 1498; died in Guatemala about 1593. He accompanied Pedrarias to Darien in 1514, and thence crossed to Cuba; was with Córdoba in the discovery of Yucatan in 1517, and with Grijalva in 1518; he subsequently joined Córtes and served through the conquest of Mexico, and accompanied Alvarado to Guatemala in 1524. In all these campaigns he was a common soldier, though he subsequently became a captain. He began writing his history in 1558, at Santiago de los Cabelleros in Guatemala. It was first published in Madrid in 1632, and has remained a standard historical authority for the conquest of Mexico.
The works of Vanegas: "Noticia de la Calfornia," and of Palou: "Vida de Junípero Serra," and "Noticias de la Nueva California" are the principal authorities for the historical beginnings of Baja and Alta California, while in the modern history Bancroft easily ranks first for the colonial period, and though I have questioned some parts of his narrative there is no doubt of the value of the work to the student and I have freely availed myself of his references, thereby greatly facilitating my work in the Bancroft collection. The work of contemporary writers and travelers such as Vancouver, Beechey, Morrell, Dana, Simpson, Brown, Bayard Taylor, and others, has been liberally drawn upon, as well for historic merit as for local color and atmosphere. One of the more valuable of these is Davis' "Sixty Years in California." William Heath Davis was born in Honolulu in 1822. His father, William Heath Davis, was a Boston ship-master engaged in the China trade who lived long in the Hawaiian Islands, being married to a daughter of Oliver Holmes, another Boston ship-master, also long a resident of the islands and one time governor of Oahu. Holmes' wife was a native Hawaiian, and another of his daughters married Nathan Spear. William Heath Davis, Jr., first visited California in 1831, a boy on the bark Louisa. In 1833 he came again on the bark Volunteer, and the third time in 1838 on the bark Don Quixote. From 1838 he was clerk and manager for his uncle, Nathan Spear, at San Francisco, remaining in his service until 1842, when he engaged as supercargo on the Don Quixote and made several trips to the Hawaiian Islands. In 1845 he entered into business on his own account and became a prominent merchant and shipowner in San Francisco, member of the ayuntamiento, etc. In 1849 he began the second brick building in San Francisco on the northwest corner of Montgomery and California streets, finished in 1850, the bricks and cement being brought from Boston. It was forty feet front on Montgomery street by eighty on California, four stories high, and he leased it to the government for a custom house. It was burned in the fire of May 3, 1851. In 1847 Davis was married to María de Jesus, daughter of Joaquin Estudillo. He was living in San Francisco at the time of the fire of 1906. He died at the house of his daughter, Mrs. Edwin H. Clough, in Haywards, April 19, 1909. He was very prosperous for many years but in his old age reverses overtook him and he died a poor man.
Another valuable contribution is Robinson's "Life in California." Alfred Robinson, a native of Massachusetts, born in 1805, came to California on the American ship Brookline in 1829, and remained as agent for Bryant and Sturgis of Boston. He traded up and down the coast disposing of cargoes and buying hides. He joined the Catholic church and was baptized José María Alf redo. On June 24, 1836, he married, in Santa Barbara, Ana María de la Gracia Leonora, daughter of José de la Guerra. Readers of Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast" will remember his description of the wedding and of the ridicule he cast upon the bridegroom, pinned and skewered in a tight, swallow-tailed coat just imported from Boston. Dana revisited California twenty-four years later and called on Don Alfredo in Santa Barbara. "I did not know how he would receive me," he writes, "remembering what I had printed to the world about him at a time when I took little thought that the world was going to read it; but there was no sign of offence, only a cordiality which gave him, as between us, rather the advantage in status." Robinson's only allusion to Dana's offence is when describing the wedding of Doña Angustias de la Guerra he says: "On this occasion the bridegroom neither had an opportunity of appropriating the services of an experienced steward (of the Alert, one of Bryant and Sturgis' ships) nor had he a vessel to which he could repair and make use of her choicest stores, as has been facetiously stated in a popular work by R. H. Dana to have been done by an American gentleman who subsequently married a sister of the bride." Don Alfredo was straightforward in all his dealings and had the respect of all classes. His book, published anonymously in 1846, was marred by the use of initials instead of names, which fault was corrected in the reprint of 1891, to which were added several chapters. It remains one of the best and most interesting narratives of life in California during the colonial period. When the Pacific Mail Steamship Company was established Robinson was appointed agent in California with headquarters in San Francisco. He died in San Francisco October 19, 1895.
Richard Henry Dana and his book "Two Years Before the Mast," are too well known to require any notice here. Dana was but twenty years old when he came to California and many of his statements are decidedly boyish in character and flippant in tone. In his later edition, his chapter "Twenty-four Years After," is a great improvement both in style and sentiment.
William H. Thomes, a native of Maine, came in 1843 from Boston, a sailor boy, age sixteen, on the American ship Admittance, Peter Peterson, master; Henry Mellus, supercargo; incited to this adventure by reading Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast." He was seized with an intense longing to encounter the dangers Dana had met with; see the same ports he had visited; get wet with the same surf, and see the same people he had described. So uncomfortable did he make himself at home over this matter that his parents concluded that a long and difficult voyage, under a Tartar captain, would be the only cure for his complaint. They therefore enrolled him on the shipping papers of the Admittance. His book "On Land and Sea," is full of interest—particularly in its personal descriptions. Thomes and his friend Lewey, another ship-boy, feigned an attack of smallpox to be left in California when the ship started for home in order that they might return to the Refugio rancho and marry a couple of pretty mestizas. The girls, however, would have none of them, and Thomes returned east on the schooner California and ultimately married a daughter of his old master on the Admittance, Captain Peterson. He returned to California in 1849 on the ship Edward Everett. His later work, "Lewey and I," a story of the conquest, is very inferior to the first book and worthless from an historical point of view.
The prominence of John H. Brown in the foregoing pages is due to the fact that he wrote a book, "The Early Days of San Francisco"; a book so bad that it amounts to a literary curiosity and deserves a place in Golden Gate Park museum. Brown tells his story with originality and a freedom from prejudice in matters of orthography that is quite striking, yet he tells what he saw—or thought he saw—and gives us much that is new and interesting; some of which I have verified. John Henry Brown was an English sailor who ran away from his ship and came to Philadelphia about 1830. In 1840 he was in the Cherokee Nation, and in 1843, in company with a party of Cherokee fur-traders, crossed the country by the Humboldt-Truckee route and spent the winter at Johnson's rancho on the Bear river. Returning east in 1844, he came back with the Grigsby-Ide party in 1845. Brown stayed for a while with Sutter and then went to work in Yerba Buena, first as barkeeper for Finch and Thompson in their saloon on the northwest corner of Kearny and Washington streets, then as barkeeper for Bob Ridley on the south side of Clay street below Kearny. He lived in San Francisco until 1850, keeping the Portsmouth house, and later, the City hotel, and from 1850 to 1881 lived in Santa Cruz. In 1885 he kept a grocery store in San Francisco. He was a well-known character and claimed to know more than any other living man regarding the history of San Francisco. He said that so many misrepresentations had been made concerning San Francisco by writers who relied upon hearsay evidence that he would write a true history of the city from his actual experience.
As I write this chapter I am informed of the death of my friend Professor George Davidson. He had been in somewhat feeble bodily health for some time though his fine mind and his wonderful memory were unimpaired. But the link which bound us to the past is broken. Since 1850 Professor Davidson has been identified with the scientific progress of the states and territories of the Pacific coast and no man was his equal in knowledge of their history. He has taken the greatest interest in my work, has helped me with suggestion and advice and every important chapter and note, in its final form, has been read and approved by him. For fifty years Professor Davidson was connected with the coast and geodetic survey and for thirty years was in charge of the work on the Pacific coast. Coming to California in charge of an astronomical and triangulation party, during the gold excitement, in 1850, Professor Davidson and his assistants were charged by their chief not to accept private employment for a period of one year, and to this all agreed. In consideration of the high cost of living in California Davidson's pay was advanced from six to eight hundred dollars a year—almost enough to maintain him for two months. By arrangement with the military authorities he was permitted to obtain supplies from the quartermaster at the government rate, otherwise he would have been obliged to resign. Most of his assistants promptly resigned to accept private employment for which the most exorbitant fees were paid, but Davidson's plain and simple honesty did not permit a deviation from the path of duty. He had undertaken to serve the government and would carry out his contract. Offered a fee of five thousand dollars to run a street line in Santa Barbara, he refused the offer and lived on his eight hundred dollars a year. His long service in the survey made him thoroughly familiar with both the coast line and the interior and he was frequently called as an expert in the great land cases. It was his rule to refuse employment from either side, requiring a subpoena of the court and then his testimony was at the service of either party to the action. His testimony in the Limantour case has been spoken of. It ended the case and caused the arrest of the petitioner while his accomplices fled. The lawyers received great fees; the expert received nothing.
Living by the line of duty, which his clear sight could not mistake, Professor Davidson died a poor man, as the world counts wealth, but rich in all that makes life valuable. He was honored by the leading governments of Europe as well as by that of the United States, and by universities and scientific societies of Europe and America. His work on the Alaska boundary, the boundary between the United States and British Columbia, and that between California and Nevada is of special value. He was correspondent of the Bureau of Longitudes of France; the Academy of sciences of the French Institute; the Swedish Anthropological and Geographical society, and of the Royal Geographical society; honorary professor of geodesy and astronomy and professor of geography in the University of California; doctor of laws; doctor of science; doctor of philosophy; knight of the Order of Saint Olaf in Norway, and member of thirty-four learned societies in this country and Europe. He was author of two hundred and sixty-one books and papers on scientific and historical subjects.
George Davidson was born in Nottingham, England, November, 1825; died in San Francisco, California, December 1, 1911; married in 1858, Eleanor, daughter of Robert Henry Fontleroy, of Virginia, and Jane Dale Owen, daughter of Robert Owen of Lanark, Scotland. A son and a daughter survive him. A mountain in Alaska and one in San Francisco bear his name and one of the city streets was named in his honor.
In the following list of authorities examined I designate manuscripts in Bancroft collection, B. C. and those (that were) in the Spanish Archives of California, S. A. C.
Alvarado (Juan Bautista), Historia de California. MS. B.C.
Alameda County History. 1881.
Anza (Juan Bautista), Diario que practico por tierra el año de 1774, El Capitan Don Juan Bautista de Anza desde Sonora á los Nuevos Establecimientos de California. MS. Archivo de Mexico. Diario del Teniente Coronel Don Juan Bautista de Anza, Capitan del Presidio de Tubac, Sonora, etc. 1775-76. MS. S.A.C.
Apostolicos Afanes de la Companía de Jesus. Barcelona, 1754.
Archives of California, 274 vol. with many unbound MS. (Destroyed by fire, 1906.)
Arrillaga (José Joaquin), Correspondence. Men of the First Expedition. MS. S. A. C.
Ávila (María Inocenta Pico de), Cosas de California. MS. B. C.
Ayala (Juan Manuel), Log of the San Cárlos. Report on Bay of San Francisco. Description of Bay of San Francisco. In March of Portolá. San Francisco, 1909.
Baldridge (William), Days of '49. MS. B. C.
Bancroft (Hubert H.), History of Pacific States.
Barnes (George A.), Oregon and California in 1849. MS. B. C.
Barry (T. A.) and B. A. Patten, Men and Memories of San Francisco. San Francisco, 1873.
Bartlett (John Russell), Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents. New York, 1854.
Beckwith (E. G.), Report of Explorations of a Route for the Pacific Railroad, 38th & 39th parallel. 33d Cong. 1st Ses. H. Ex. Doc. 129.
Bee (Heary J.), Recollections of California from 1830. MS. B. C.
Beechey (F. W.), Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific in 1825-28. London, 1831.
Belden (Josiah), Historical Statement. MS. B. C.
Benton (Thomas H.), Letters and Speeches. Niles Register and Congressional Globe.
Berreyesa (José de los Santos), In Los Angeles Star, September 27, 1856.
Bidwell (John), California in 1841. MS. B. C. Statements in Royce's California. Articles in Century Magazine, XVIII., XIX.
Bigelow (John), Life and Services of J. C. Frémont. New York, 1856.
Bigler (Henry), Diary of a Mormon in California. MS. B. C.
Bluxome (Isaac, Jr.), Personal Narrative. MS. B. C.
Bosqui (Edward), Memoirs. San Francisco, 1904.
Borthwick (J. D.), Three Years in California. London, 1857.
Breen (Patrick), Diary of a Member of the Donner Party. MS. B. C.
Broughton (William R.), A Voyage of Discovery to North Pacific Ocean. London, 1804.
Brown (Charles), Early Days of California. MS. B. C.
Brown (John H.), Early Days of San Francisco. San Francisco, 1886.
Bryant (Edwin), What I Saw in California. New York, 1848.
Bryce (James), American Commonwealths. London, 1891.
Bucaréli (El Bailio Frey D. Antonio), Reglamento, 1773, 1774. Letter to Fages October 14, 1772. To Rivera, September 19, 1773, and January 2, 1775. MS. S. A. C.
Buffam (E. Gould), Six Months in the Gold Mines. Philadelphia, 1850.
Burnett (Peter F.), Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer. New York, 1880.
Cabrera Bueno (José Gonzales), Treatise on Navigation. London, 1790.
California, Journals of Senate and Assembly, 1850-1856.
California and New Mexico. Messages and Documents 31st Cong. 1st Ses. H. Ex. Doc. 17.
Canfield (Chauncey), Diary of a Forty-niner.
Casteñares (José), Diary of Journey, Velicatá to San Diego, 1769. MS. S. A. C. Reconnaissance of the Port of San Francisco. In March of Portolá. San Francisco, 1809.
Casteñares (Manuel), Documentos para la Historia de California. Mexico, 1846.
Castro Documents. MS. B. C.
Century Magazine, XVII., XIX. Articles by various writers.
Clark (William S.), Recollections of a San Francisco Pioneer. MS. B. C.
Clemens (Samuel L.) (Mark Twain), Innocents Abroad.
Colton (Walter), Deck and Port. New York, 1850. Three Years in California. New York, 1850.
Congressional Globe, 1847-48.
Coon (H. P.), Annals of San Francisco. MS. B. C.
Coronel (Antonio F.), Cosas de California. MS. B. C.
Córtes (Hernan), Historia de New España. Edited by Lorenzana.
Costansó (Miguel), Diario Historico de los Viages de Mar y Tierra hechos al Norte de California. MS. Sutro Library, also Pub. Academy Pacific Coast Hist., 1911. Historical Journal. London, 1790.
Coues (Elliott), On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer. Diary of Garcés. New York, 1900.
Crespi (Juan), Diario Viage San Diego a Monterey, 1769. In Palou's Noticias. Diario que se formó en el registro que se hizo del San Francisco, 1772. In Palou's Noticias. Letter, May 21, 1772. In Outwest, January, 1902. Diary of Voyage on the Santiago, 1774. Pub. Historical Society of Southern California. Vol. ii., part 1.
Croix (Teodoro), Approval of Location of Presidio of Santa Barbara. MS. S. A. C.
Crosby (E. O.), Events in California. MS. B. C.
Dana (Richard H., Jr.), Two Years Before the Mast. Boston, 1873.
Davidson (George), Methods and Results—Voyages on Northwest Coast. 1539-1603. Washington, 1887. The Alaska Boundary. San Francisco, 1903. Discovery San Francisco Bay. San Francisco, 1907. Francis Drake on North Coast of America in 1579. San Francisco, 1908. Origin and Meaning of Name California. San Francisco, 1910.
Davis (William Heath), Sixty Years in California. San Francisco, 1889.
Delano (Amasa), Life on the Plains, etc. New York, 1857.
Deymann (Rev. Clementinus), Portiúncula Indulgence. San Francisco, 1895.
Diaz del Castillo (Bernal), Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. Paris, 1837.
Directory, San Francisco: Parker, 1852-53; Colville, 1856.
Documentos para la Historia California. MS. B. C.
Doyle (John T.), Historical Introduction to Palou's Noticias. Memo, as to discovery of Bay of San Francisco. San Francisco, 1889. Pious Fund of California. In Pub. Cal. Hist. Society, Vol. i., part 1. San Francisco, 1887.
Drake (Francis), The World Encompassed. Hakluyt Soc. Ed. London, 1854.
Dwinelle (John W.), Colonial History of San Francisco. San Francisco, 1866.
Dye (Job F.), Recollections of California. MS. B. C.
Emory (William H.), Notes of a Military Reconnaissance. Washington, 1848.
Esplandian, Sergas of (Reprint).
Estudillo (José Joaquin), Documentos para la Historia de California. MS. B. C.
Fages (Pedro), Salida Que Hizo El Theniente de Vol. de Cataluna, Don Pedro Fages, 1770. Pub. Academy Pac. Coast Hist., Vol. ii., No. 3, 1911. Letter to Romeu, May 28, 1791. S. A. C. MS. Report of the Massacre of the Colorado. MS. S. A. C.
Farnham (J. T.), Life, Adventures, and Travels in California. New York, 1857.
Fay (Caleb T.), Historical Facts on California. MS. B.C.
Field (Stephen J.), Personal Reminiscenes of Early Days.
Figueroa (Jose), Manifesto of. San Francisco, 1855. Provisional Regulations for Secularization of the Missions of Alta California. In H. Doc. 17.
Filiaciones (Enrollment). MS. S. A. C.; B. C.
First Steamship Pioneers. San Francisco, 1874.
Folsom (Joseph L.), Report on Boundaries of Military Reserve at San Francisco. Superior Court of San Francisco, Herman vs. City and County of San Francisco.
Font (Pedro), Diario que forma el Padre Fray Pedro Font en el viage del que hizo á Monterey y Puerto de San Francisco, 1775 y 1776. Sacado del Borrador. MS. (University of California.) Diary of Font, in full. MS. Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. I.
Forbes (Alexander), History of California. London, 1839.
Forster (John), Pioneer Data from 1832. MS. B. C.
Foster (Stephen C.), Angeles from '47 to '49. MS. B. C.
Fourgeaud (Victor J.), Prospects of California. In California Star. April, 1848.
Fowler (John), Bear Flag Revolt. MS. B. C.
Frémont (John Charles), Geographical Memoir. Washington, 1849. Memoir of My Life. New York, 1887. Conquest of California in Century Mag., Vol. XIX. Memoirs of Life and Services by John Bigelow. Court-martial, 30th Cong. 1st. Ses. Sen. Ex. Doc. 33. Cal. Claims; 30th Cong. 1st. Ses. Senate Rep. 75. Correspondence in Cong. Globe, Niles Register, etc.
Galvez (José), Letter of Instruction to Fages, January 5, 1769. MS. S. A. C.
Garcés (Francisco), Diario y Derrotero. Translated by Dr. Elliott Coues.
Garcia (José María), Report on Condition of Territory, 1834 MS. S. A. C.
Garniss (James R.), Early Days of San Francisco. MS. B.C.
Gleeson (William), Hist. of Catholic Church in California. San Francisco, 1872.
Goycoechea (Filipe), Report Concerning Joseph O'Cain, 1795. MS. S. A. C.
Hakluyt's Voyages. Various relations concerning Coronado, Marco de Niza, Mendoza, Espejo, Gomera, Ulloa, Preciado, Gali, Alarcon, and others.
Hale (Edward Everett), Queen of California. In Atlantic Monthly. xiii. 265.
Hall (Frederick), Hist. of San José. San Francisco, 1871.
Hall (William Ham.), Irrigation in California.
Halleck (Henry W.), Correspondence. In Doc. 17. House of Rep. 31st Cong. 1st Ses. Report on Land Titles in California, in same.
Harlan (Jacob Wright), California, '46 to '88. San Francisco, 1888.
Hastings (Lansford W.), Emigrants' Guide to Oregon and California. Cincinnati, 1845. New Description of Oregon and California. Cincinnati, 1849.
Hayes (Benjamin), Emigrant Notes. MS. B. C.
Heitman (Francis B.), Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army.
Helper (Hinton R.), The Land of Gold. Baltimore, 1855.
Historical Society of Southern California Publications. Various documents in Sutro library relating to voyages of Gali, Cermeño, and Vizcaino. Letters from Junípero Serra to Viceroy and diaries of Crespi and Peña, part 1, vol. ii., also part 1, vol. vi., various documents.
Hittell (John S.), History of San Francisco. San Francisco, 1878.
Hittell (Theodore H.), Oration: Achievements of California. San Francisco, 1892. History of California. San Francisco, 1897. George Bancroft and His Services to California. San Francisco, 1893.
Hoffman (Ogden), Report of Land Cases. San Francisco, 1862. Opinions in Law Cases.
Hojas de Servicio. Various soldiers. MSS. S. A. C. and B.C.
Hutchings' Illustrated California Magazine.
Hyde (George), Historical Facts on California. MS. B.C.
Ide (William B.), Bear Flag Revolt. MS. B. C. Biographical Sketch.
Irving (Washington), Adventures of Bonneville.
Johnson (Theodore T.), Sights in the Gold Region. New York, 1849.
Johnston (Abraham R.), Journal of a Trip with the First Dragoons in 1846. In Doc. 41. H. of Rep. 30th Cong. 1st Ses.
Jones (William Carey), First Phase of the Conquest of California. Pub. Cal. Hist. Socy. Vol. 0., Part 1. San Francisco, 1887.
Kearny (Stephen W.), Documents and reports in H. Doc. 17. 30th Cong. 1st Ses. Report of Battle of San Pascual in Bryant's What I saw in California. General Kearny and the Conquest of California by Valentine M. Porter. Los Angeles, 1911.
Kelly (William), A Stroll Through the Diggings of California. London, 1852.
Kirkpatrick (Chas. A.), Journal of 1849. MS. B. C.
Kotzebuc (Otto von), New Voyage Around the World. London, 1830.
Lancey (Thomas C.), Cruise of the Dale. Scrapbook from San José
Pioneer. B. C.
Land Titles in San Francisco. Hart vs. Burnett. Supreme Court of California. San Francisco, 1859.
Langsdorff (C. H. von), Voyages and Travels. 1803-07.
La Pérouse (John Francis Gallup, Count de), Voyage Around the World, With Atlas. London, 1798.
Laws of the Indies (Don Felipe II.) Law VI. Providing four (4) leagues of land for Pueblo. In Hart vs. Burnett.
Larkin (Thomas O.), Various documents and correspondence. MS. B. C.
Laut (Agnes C.), The Conquest of the Great Northwest. New York, 1908.
Laws and Regulations. Various laws and regulations concerning granting of lands, secularization, etc., in Halleck's Report. H. Doc. 17. 31st Cong. 1st Sess. and in Hart vs. Burnett.
Leese (Jacob P.) Bear Flag Revolt. MS. B. C.
Libros de Mision. San Francisco de Asis, San Francisco Solano, Santa Clara, Santa Barbara. MS.
Limantour (José Y.), U. S. Circuit Court Records.
Lloyd (B. E.), Lights and Shades in San Francisco. San Francisco, 1876.
Low (Frederick F.), Observations on Early California. MS. B. C.
Lugo (José del Carman), Vida de un Ranchero. MS. B.C.
McGee (W. J.), The Old Yuma Trail. In National Geographic Magazine, May-April, 1901.
McGlashan (C. F.), History of the Donner Party. Truckee, 1879.
McKinstry (George), Papers on the History of California. MS. B. C.
Mange (Juan Mateo), Diario 1694-1701. In Documentos para la Historio
de Mexico, 4th series, Vol. i.
Marcou (Jules), Notes upon the First Discoveries of California. Washington, 1878.
Martin (Thomas S.), Narrative of Fremont's Expedition. 1845-47. MS. B. C.
Mason (Richard B.), Report on Gold Discoveries. In Doc. 17. 31st Cong. 1st Sess.
Mead (Elwood), Report on Irrigation Investigations in California. U. S. Dept. Agriculture; bulletin 100. Washington, 1901.
Merrill (Annis), Recollections of San Francisco. MS. B.C.
Mofras (Eugene Duflot de), Exploration de l'Oregon, des Californies, etc. Paris, 1844.
Morrell (Benjamin W.), Narrative of Four Voyages. New York, 1832.
National Geographic Magazine. March, April, 1901. January, 1907, August, 1909.
Neal (James), Narrative, MS. B. C.
New Helvetia Diary. Events, 1845-48. MS. B. C.
Newspapers. Californian, California Star, Alta California, San Francisco Herald, S. F. Argonaut, San José Pioneer, Los Angeles Star, and many others.
Niles Register, 1846-47.
Nugent (John), Scraps of Early History. In S. F. Argonaut, April 13, 1878.
Oakland. Statutes concerning Oakland Water Front.
O'Farrell (Jasper), Letter in Los Angeles Star, Sept. 27, 1856.
Ortega (Padre José), Historia del Nayarit; Sonora, Sinaloa, y Ambos Californias. Apostolicos Afanes de la Compania de Jesus. Barcelona, 1754.
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