San Francisco, 18 April 1906, 5:12 a.m.
". . .a foreshock occurred with sufficient force to be felt widely throughout the San Francisco Bay area. The great earthquake broke loose some 20 to 25 seconds later, with an epicenter near San Francisco. Violent shocks punctuated the strong shaking which lasted some 45 to 60 seconds. . ." (1)The shocks occurred along the San Andreas fault; the largest quake was registered at magnitude (M) 7.8. (2)
While larger earthquakes had occurred previously in the United States and California, the destruction caused by the ensuing fires in San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake resulted in the most significant natural disaster in United States history at that point.
Thousands of photographs and over a hundred books document the destruction and provide captivating eyewitness accounts of the devastation. One such personal observation, written by Adolphus Busch (one of the founders of the Anheuser-Busch brewing company in St. Louis, Missouri), gives a good overview of what occurred:
". . .The earthquake which shook San Francisco made all frantic, and was undoubtedly the severest ever experienced in the United States. The beautiful Hotel St. Francis swayed from south to north like a tall poplar in a storm. Furniture, even pianos, was overturned, and people were thrown from their beds.REFUGEES FLEE
"The rush of the grand army of refugees was not so great toward the Presidio as has been reported, but down the neck of the peninsula toward San Mateo and Redwood City, across the bay to Sausalito, San Rafael, Tiburon, Napa and Petaluma, and greatest of all toward Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda, the eastside suburbs beyond the harbor." —Bailey Millard (3)The refugees quickly began leaving the affected areas with the few belongings they could carry. Thousands of displaced residents fled in multiple directions. Some went as far as Oregon, Los Angeles and even New York. Many sought shelter with friends and relatives in nearby communities north of the Golden Gate, south along the peninsula, and to the east across the Bay in Oakland and its neighboring towns. Thousands of others descended on local city parks or went to stay with more fortunate residents of The City whose homes still remained habitable.
"On the way to our apartment I saw thousands of men, women and children headed westward. All were pulling sleds, baby carriages, childrens’ wagons — anything on which they could load some of their belongings, or dragging trunks and suitcases along the streets and sidewalks block by block; all seeking safety somewhere. Many women were carrying babies in their arms, while over their shoulders were slung big bundles wrapped in bed sheets. All were fleeing the holocaust and trying to take as much as possible with them — to the Presidio or Golden Gate Park, which appeared to be islands of safety. On the way to my mother’s home at Guerrero and 27th Streets a similar sight met my eyes. The whole South of Market population was pouring through the Mission District on its way to Bernal Heights or the Peninsula; carrying as many household possessions as possible. And from early morning other tens of thousands were fleeing to Oakland and other East Bay points." (4)A UNIQUE PHENOMENON
"What was probably the first order for jewelry received in this city [Sacramento] from San Francisco since the disaster was contained in a telegram received yesterday afternoon by a Maiden Lane firm. The order, which came from a retail jeweler, asked that 160 wedding rings of various sizes be sent in a hurry. It is supposed that the demand comes from couples whose marriages are being hastened because of the catastrophe." (full article)In the days and weeks following the disaster, newspapers all over the country were overflowing with photographs and accounts of the terrible destruction. Reports of frightening numbers of dead and injured were accompanied by desperate pleas for aid for the stricken refugees.
But among the countless descriptions of tragedy carried in newspapers every day, a unique human phenomenon was also being reported. Despite the extremely difficult circumstances surrounding them, couples were getting married, and they were doing it in record numbers.
A Sense of Urgency.
"One of the amusing sights at the ruined City Hall in San Francisco was the sight of young couples scrambling about among the ruins trying to find where marriage licenses were issued. As they usually refused to tell anyone what they were looking for they were considerably hampered in their search." (full article)Many couples seemed determined to be married immediately, in spite of the unsettling circumstances surrounding them in the days and weeks following the earthquake and fire. Newspaper articles on the reasons for the surge in marriages were varied. Headlines as diverse as these appeared: Disaster As Aid To Cupid, Cupid Is Busy Across The Bay, Calamity No Bar to Wedding, Fire and Quake Hinder Not Love, and Romance of the Flames. (Over 130 newspaper articles are presented here for the reader's perusal.)
A Matter of Convenience.
According to Hubert Russell in Lest We Forget, ". . . Homeless young couples met each other, compared notes and finally agreed to marry."
Several articles support the claim that some couples married for convenience and economic reasons:
"Mr. Billingslee had saved $1.20 and figured that it would cost $1.00 for a room for himself alone or the same amount for both, so concluded to get married." (full article)Refugees Find Love.
". . . he had figured it out, 'twould be cheaper if they both lived in the same room." (full article)
" . . . they met for the first time on the train speeding northward to Seattle. It appears to have been a case on either side of love at first sight." (full article)
"San Francisco's awful earthquake and fire made refugees of Hal Smith and Miss Sadie Stearling, but in doing so brought them together in love and marriage." Hal and Sadie met on a train heading toward Seattle, and were married there on May 1st. (full article)
Domenica Mae Lazio was only sixteen years old when she met Giuseppe Alioto as they fled from Fisherman's Wharf in her family's fishing boat; they married some years later and became the parents of Joseph Alioto, mayor of The City from 1968 to 1976. (full article)
A number of couples met during their time in the refugee camps and were later married. Yosuke Masuda and Kin Kato were introduced to each other by a matchmaker at a refugee center in Oakland and married in San Francisco in 1908. (full article)
Local historian Woody LaBounty tells of his great-grandparents, Milton Otto Slinkey and Ethel Sarah Neate, who met during their stay in a San Francisco refugee camp and were married by November. (full article)Companionship.
"Even in these days of doubt and disaster, Rev. John Hemphill of Calvary Presbyterian Church found time to realize that it was not good for man to live alone." (full article)Though only a few articles hinted at it, the basic human need for comfort and companionship to help ward off loneliness and despair cannot be discounted as a possible motive for some couples' decision to marry.
"William Henry Perkins will offer himself upon the matrimonial altar in the cause of any one of the various and many damsels in distress by reason of the recent disaster." (full article)Numerous reports of "homeless young available women" soon began to reach newspapers outside of The City. Whether motivated by chivalry, a sense of duty, or simply the desire to seize what they perceived as a golden opportunity, bachelors from all over the country began sending in offers to single women displaced by the disaster.
"A Gentleman from the East would like to make the acquaintance of a refined young lady; object matrimony." (full article)The Marriage Bureau.
"If you Have any Good Girl that is without a Home, and who has been working in a family, that desires to get Married, please Have them correspond with me . . ." (full article)
" . . . Since some newspaper correspondent with a fertile imagination sent out the story that there were scores of young women rendered homeless by reason of the earthquake and subsequent fire were anxious to marry, Mayor Mott [of Oakland], and other officials have been receiving requests from various men who pick out wives for them." (full article)Some bachelors apparently tried to contact or visit the non-existent "Matromonial Bureau" looking for wives.
"He called at the Harbor Hospital yesterday for information about the twenty-five young women supposed to have banded themselves into an association for the purpose of securing husbands." (full article)It's unknown how many, if any, marriages resulted from such requests.
". . .The major requirement is that she be good. A reasonable love of pleasure and an inclination toward affairs of gayety will be countenanced if she also hath an inclination toward things churchy and can keep a house and 'make a cherry pie in a minute.' " (full article)
Mrs. Jefferson D. Gibbs, who took charge of arranging an employment bureau in Los Angeles for female refugees, received a letter from a gentleman offering both a job and a home to a potential wife who was "brunette, plump and not afraid to work." (full article)
"A stroke of the pen made the old bonds as good as new, and the couple, after kissing in the presence of the law as an evidence of restored confidence, locked arms and went away smiling." (full article)It was reported in several stories that couples who had previously been divorced, or who were in the process of being divorced, changed their minds about their decision to end their marriages.
"One result of the earthquake in San Francisco has been the reuniting of James P. Kirwan and his wife, Mrs. Frances E. Kirwan, who were divorced several years ago. They met in a refugees' camp and forgot their differences in their common losses." (full article)Apparently, a number of couples decided that the flaws they saw in their spouses before the disaster somehow seemed less significant afterwards.
"The Browns were divorced in Petaluma three years ago. They told the clerk that they had agreed to let bygones be bygones and remarry immediately." (full article)
Let's Not Wait.
"The wedding was to have occurred [in early June] in San Francisco, and the plans were progressing merrily when the disaster fell upon San Francisco." (full article)At least nineteen newspaper stories appeared regarding courting or engaged couples whose weddings were hastened because of the disaster:
"Weddings in great number have resulted from the recent disaster. Women driven out of their homes and left destitute, have appealed to the men to whom they were engaged and immediately marriages have been effected." (full article)
"When word of the local disaster reached the East, Colonel Edwin Emerson Jr. wired a proposal of marriage to Miss Mary Edith Griswold of this city." (full article)
A story appeared in early May about one engaged woman who insisted that she be married immediately, in the same dress in which she escaped, and that the wedding be performed nowhere else but in her refugee cottage in Golden Gate Park. (full article)
" . . .Cupid is a persevering little fellow." (full article)Exactly one month after the initial earthquake, it was reported in the newspaper article, Earthquake Ripened Love, that:
". . .the high-water mark for the issuance of marriage licenses was reached. In this month exactly 418 couples appeared before 'Cupid' Munson, and after depositing the necessary $2 received the requisite paper. The total is eighteen more than have ever been issued in a calendar month in the history of the city." (The County's marriage license clerk, Grant Munson, earned the nickname "Cupid" for the number of licenses he issued.)That doesn't seem to be a major record-breaking number, but the article continued:
" 'Had all parties living in the city come in this office for their licenses since the earthquake,' declared Munson, 'we would have had more business than we could possibly attend to. The record of marriage licenses would have been somewhat more than 700.' " (full article)Our marriage vitals database indicates almost 600 couples, where at least one spouse was from San Francisco, were married in San Francisco County and two surrounding counties (Alameda and Marin). If we take into account those residents who married in other local counties and other parts of the United States, this figure would be higher.
Why did a record number of couples get married? Was it for economic reasons? Convenience? Psychological? Or all three?
"Pitiable Plight of Women.Undoubtedly, a large number of women and men suddenly lost their homes, belongings, and jobs.
" 'What shall we do? What shall we do?' sobbed the little girl who was accompanied by her mother. Their home had been burned and they had no immediate relatives. Their only thought was to get away from San Francisco, and now they are at a loss what to do. Despite the assurances of her mother and the kind ladies of the relief committee the little girl sobbed bitterly and refused to be comforted.
" 'My husband is dead, and about all we had in the world was our home, and we both had to work out,' said the mother. 'We have friends in San Francisco, it is true, but it will be weeks before we shall be able to communicate with them. The poor girl has been crying like this almost all the way from San Francisco, and I am afraid she will be a nervous wreck. I shall work as soon as I can find employment.
"These two were taken to the home of some big-hearted lady who refused to make known her name. The ladies of the relief committee wanted to help them, but this lady insisted upon taking them into her home. She says she will take care of them until they both recover from the effects of their horrible experiences and will then assist them in finding employment." (5)
In general, women's prospects for finding well-paying work were less promising than that of men: ". . . women are concentrated in particular industries, services, and caring professions. Thus sewing, social services, teaching and nursing are seen as women's work because they are natural extensions of domestic and private sphere occupations. Women's experience of paid work is predominantly one of poorer working conditions, lower levels of pay, and under unionization relative to men."(6)
While these still were widely-held attitudes in the early 20th century, and may have imposed some limit on womens' abilities to secure employment that would allow them to be completely independent and self-supporting, it does not appear that a majority of women felt they had no other choice but marriage. Many began looking for work immediately, and several organizations came forward quickly to set up employment opportunities for them. (relevant newspaper articles)
What of the men who were potential husbands? Were they better off financially than the women? Probably not. They too suffered tremendous losses as a result of the earthquake and fire. Most of the refugees who were not able to turn to family or friends outside the stricken area ended up in the long-term refugee camps, where they were generally well-fed and provided with some kind of suitable shelter.
Newspapers carried several reports of couples who claimed to have married in order to save money on a boarding room.
"The recent calamity led Miss Marie Beranek and Joseph Krieg, late of San Francisco, but since the great fire refugees at the Elks' camp, to decide that it was best for them to go along life's quaky path together . . . Thursday afternoon they took a trip to Oakland and when they returned to camp at night they announced that they had been married by Justice of the Peace Geary in the latter's office in Oakland . . .The groom and the bride were acquainted before the fire. They lived in the same building." (full article)Given the general social mores of the time, it is not unreasonable to think that convenience may have been the catalyst for some marriages. However, our research does not indicate it was a very common reason for these rushed weddings.
"Whether or not the disaster has awakened man's chivalry is something of a question, but it is an undisputed fact that men who before the fire considered themselves too poor to marry have jumped into the breach and carried off brides bringing with them even the vestige of a trousseau." (full article)
Edvard Munch, 1893
"SAN FRANCISCO, April 21.—The terrible strain of the past few days is beginning to tell on the people. The reaction has come as the result of the awful experiences through which the majority of people have passed, and the suspense over missing relatives and friends is causing serious illness and in some cases insanity. . ." (7)
"I don't take things for granted, because everything feels more fragile. It's made me wonder about mortality and how long you've got somebody in the world. I'm more fearful than I used to be." —Robin Gibb, musician. (8)Were these couples getting married because they suddenly realized the limits of their own mortality? When faced with extreme emotions, human beings react in various ways. There were many accounts of people going insane, either because of the stress of their experiences during the earthquake and fire, or because they had lost loved ones in the disaster. It is easy to understand that in times of such severe emotional distress, human beings would find comfort in the thought of "joining forces" with another to face an uncertain future.
AN ACADEMIC STUDY
So, can we ever find an answer to why these couples were married? Fortunately, a study, Life Course Transitions and Natural Disaster: Marriage, Birth, and Divorce Following Hurricane Hugo, was published by Catherine Cohan and Steven Cole in 2002. (9) Their study includes some of the questions we ask above.
Hurricane Hugo struck South Carolina on 22 September 1989. According to the study, forty percent of the residences were damaged, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) ranked the hurricane fourth in natural disaster relief costs. They studied vital statistics over 23 years, from 1975 to 1997, to determine how natural disasters affected births, marriages and divorces. We will present here the pertinent data regarding marriages. The study drew up hypotheses for three theories:
(1) Stress: ". . .suggests that stressful events may initiate or exacerbate processes contributing to marital instability. . .suggests divorce would increase following a natural disaster. . .the dating couple, the source of future marriages, will be more likely to break up."They also took into account whether the data was affected by the age of those involved.
(2) Attachment: ". . .accessibility of the partner and relationship length may have encouraged more dating couples to transition to marriage. . ."
(3) Economic: ". . .When men's employment opportunities or real wages decline, they are less attractive as marriage partners, and marriage rates decline."
Although marriages were declining steadily during the study period throughout the state, they significantly increased in 1990 for the affected areas. In addition, birth and divorce rates also increased! According to their summary:
". . .On the basis of stress research and economic circumstances research, we predicted that marriages and births would decrease and divorces would increase. On the basis of the attachment theory, we predicted that marriages and births would increase and divorces would decrease."But they found that divorces also increased. So perhaps all three theories have some relevance.
The study continued and considered "a fourth perspective, that a natural disaster mobilized people to take action. A life-threatening stressor appeared to be the catalyst for some to take significant and relatively quick action in their personal lives that altered their life course. For some, natural disaster may have hastened a transition they were already moving toward, but at a slower pace. For others, natural disaster may have lead to a transition that might not have occurred if not for the disaster. . ."
California experiences many earthquakes each year. Most of them are small and unnoticed. But have there been other major earthquakes against which we can compare data?
San Francisco has experienced three major earthquakes in the last 150 years: (10)
In 1989, there were 63 related deaths, 3,757 injuries, and 22 structural fires reported. Severe damage occurred to the Cypress Viaduct in Oakland (the cause of 42 deaths), the Bay Bridge (Oakland portion), and residential buildings in the Marina District in San Francisco. (13, 14) The population in San Francisco and Oakland was about 1,113,000 at that time. (15) Marriage numbers for 1989 do not show any increase.
Now, compare the above figures to those in 1906: there were possibly more than 3,400 related deaths, approximately 15,000 injuries in a population of about 400,000, and two-thirds of a major metropolis was shaken, dynamited and burned to the ground over the course of three days. (16, 17)
Perhaps the marriage numbers for the 1989 earthquake were not affected because it occurred in a short span of time and was small in the magnitude of destruction. Thus, it was probably not overwhelmingly viewed as life-threatening by the general population.
"Out of the ruin and desolation happiness will spring and at some future date happy couples will refer to the San Francisco earthquake and fire as the date of the beginning of their wedded bliss." (full article)As we can see from the various newspaper articles of the time, there seemed to be a variety of reasons that couples hurried their decision to wed. But it appears that a recurring theme weaves through a large majority of these reasons: most of the marriages seem to have occurred as a result of the emotional and/or psychological stress brought on by the disaster.
The newspaper articles as a whole also tend to support the "fourth perspective" observed in Catherine Cohan and Steven Cole's study: that a life-threatening event can propel us faster to actions towards which we may have already been heading—in our discussion, life partnership and marriage. Article after article refer to couples who met and almost immediately decided to marry, couples who were previously mere acquaintances but suddenly decided to marry, courting couples who quickly announced their engagements, and previously engaged couples who moved up their wedding dates so as to be married immediately.
Of course, all of this human emotion and drama makes great fodder for romance/mystery books. We have put together a list which may give you a feel for the people and events that occurred during this time.
We hope you enjoy your venture into this project. Please take some time and read the newspaper articles. We have also put together some personal stories from descendants of the couples who were married with the thirty days after the earthquake and those who met because of it. As you will notice, these people had a direct impact on the culture and history of modern San Francisco.
Ron Filion and Pamela Storm
December 2005, updated April 2006
We would like to thank the following
individuals for assisting us with this project: Catherine Cohan, Aimee
Klask, William Lynch, Nancy Pratt Melton, John Rohde, Katherine Sullivan,
Rich Wharff, Cathy Gowdy, and Chris Havnar. We'd also like to thank
those individuals who have allowed us to tell their family stories (see
their family pages).
"Cupid" Munson, the 1906 San Francisco marriage license clerk, was still being asked for help in getting a sweetheart three years later in 1909:
" 'Cupid' Munsion, marriage license clerk in the office of the county clerk, has been asked for help in a new direction. E. Pierre, at Los Angeles, hearing of Cupid's fame and doubtless mistaking him for the little cherub-god of the fateful bow and arrows, today appealed to him for aid in getting a sweetheart.This article illustrates the effect that the newspaper articles regarding those who were married and those who had met during the disaster had on the public. This "marriage phenomena" was still in the minds of some bachelors years later.
"Here is the letter:
" 'Los Angeles, Cal., General Delivery.
" 'to Marriage License bureau, 11 Jones St., S. Francisco.
" 'Dear Sir: As I can not fiend [sic] in the directory of S. Francisco some marriage agency, I address you if you will kindly notify me once or more if you can of said agencies.
" 'Yours truly, E. PIERRE."
"Mr. Munson doubts the legality of adding the matrimonial agency feature to his public duties. He agrees, however, that the young man is right in calling first on the government for aid." (18)
|"I was married once—in San Francisco.
I haven't seen her for many years. The great earthquake and fire in 1906
destroyed the marriage certificate. There's no legal proof. Which proves
that earthquakes aren't all bad."
—W.C. Fields (20)
(1) Quake: 1906 San Francisco Quake. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, Northern California. <http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/info/1906/>. 20 November 2005. (Ellsworth, W.L., 1990, Earthquake history, 1769-1989, chap. 6 of Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas Fault System, California: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 152-187. An account of historic earthquakes in California.)
(2) Largest Earthquakes in the United States. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. <http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/10maps_usa.html>. 20 November 2005.
In 1906, this earthquake rated the seventh largest in the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). New Madrid, Missouri, had three earthquakes in 1811-1812 of magnitude 7.8 and two at 8.1. Fort Tejon, California had a magnitude 7.9 in 1857. Imperial Valley, California had a 7.8 quake in 1892. The largest earthquake had occurred in Oregon in 1700, with a magnitude of approximately 9.0.(3) Millard, Bailey. History of the San Francisco Bay Region : History and Biography. American Historical Society, 1924.
(4) Charles Kendrick's Eyewitness Account of the 1906 Earthquake. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. <http://www.sfmuseum.net/1906/ew17.html>. 20 November 2005.
(5) Pitiable Plight of Women. The Oregonian (Portland). 23 April 1906. Page 16.
(6) Social Science
Terminology Useful in the Discussion of Culture and Schooling. Nanna,
Michael J., Ph.D., Arizona State University;
<http://www.public.asu.edu/~mnanna/terminology.htm>. 20 November 2005.
(7) Driven Insane By Disaster. The Oregonian (Portland). 22 April 1906. Page 5.
(8) Robin Gibb
<http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/r/robingibb213563.html>. 20 November 2005.
(9) Cohan, Catherine L. and Cole, Steve W. Life Course Transitions and Natural Disaster: Marriage, Birth, and Divorce Following Hurricane Hugo. Journal of Family Psychology, 2002 Vol. 16, No. 1, 14-25.
(10) San Francisco
History Timeline. San Francisco History.
<http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hgtim1.htm>. 20 November 2005.
(11) BSL FAQ:
1868 Earthquake. Berkeley Seismological Laboratory.
<http://seismo.berkeley.edu/faq/1868_0.html>. 20 November 2005.
(12) Records Show Quake of 1868 Demolished Insecure Buildings. San Francisco Call. 14 May 1906. Page 9.
(13) Loma Prieta
1989 Earthquake. Tom Irvine.
<http://www.vibrationdata.com/earthquakes/lomaprieta.htm>. 20 November 2005.
Deaths -- California. Department of Health and Human Services, Center
for Disease Control and Preventon.
<http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001498.htm>. 20 November 2005.
Tables - American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau
1990 Census: San Francisco County, 723959; Oakland Division, Alameda County, 388587. <http://factfinder.census.gov/>. 20 November 2005
(16) San Francisco,
1906 Quake Toll Disputed... Suzanne Herel, San Francisco Chronicle.
?f=/c/a/2005/01/15/BAGL0AQK2U29.DTL>. 20 November 2005
(17) Personal Collection of 1906 Earthquake Stereoview Cards. Ron Filion. [Statistics were presented on the back of one of the cards, author unknown.]
(18) More Work For "Cupid Munson." San Francisco Call. 14 June 1909. Page 7.
(19) Definition of trousseau. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. <http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/trousseau>. 20 November 2005.
(20) Humorous Quotes of W.C. Fields. Jest for Pun. <http://www.workinghumor.com/quotes/wc_fields.shtml>. 20 November 2005.
Black and white drawing of couple. Gothamite Weds Society Maid. San Francisco Call. 16 March 1905. Page 9.
Panorama from ferry building, San Francisco. Pillsbury Picture Company (1070 Broadway, Oakland, California). 1906. <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pan.6a17900>. 20 November 2005.
Camping in Jefferson Square, San Francisco. Pillsbury Picture Company (1070 Broadway, Oakland, California). 1906. <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c33043>. 20 November 2005.
Refugees Flee San Francisco. San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: [People] leaving the city, ca. 04/1906. War Department. Office of the Quartermaster General. NAIL Control Number: NWDNS-92-ER-26. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.
Ft. Mason Refugee Campers and their belongings saved from the Flames of burning San Francisco. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Stereoviews. <http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/1906/hpes.htm>. 20 November 2005.
Daniel Murphy and Annie Kelly Wedding Photo. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Marriage Project. <http://www.sfgenealogy.com/1906/06murphy.htm>. 20 November 2005.
The Scream. Edvard Munch, 1893. Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edvard_Munch>. 04 December 2005.
Hurricane Hugo Radar Image. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hurricane Research Division, 1989. <http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1989hugo.html>. 04 December 2005.
Dynamiting Of The Phelan Building. The New San Francisco Magazine, May 1906. <http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/1906/06nsfm.htm>. 20 November 2005.
Between the Dark and Dawn.
Cover art by Jack Forge. 2004.